The term neo-concrete is a position in the face of non-figurative art "geometric" (Neo, Constructivism, Suprematism, University of Ulm) and particularly in the face of art concrete led to a dangerous exacerbation rationalist. Working in painting, sculpture, printmaking and literature, artists participating in this exhibition I Neoconcrete met by virtue of their experience in reviewing contingency theoretical positions adopted so far in the face of concrete art, since none of them "understand" satisfactorily the expressive possibilities opened by these experiences.
Born with Cubism, a reaction to impressionist dissolves the pictorial language was natural geometric said that art is put in direct opposition to the facilities painting techniques and allusive power. The new achievements of physics and mechanics, opening a broad perspective to objective thinking, encouraging, we continue this revolution, the trend toward increasing rationalization of processes and purposes of painting. A notion mechanical construction invade the language of painters and sculptors, creating, in time, equally extremist reactions, such as retrograde character or magical realism irrationalist as Dada and Surrealism. No doubt, however, that behind his theories that consecrated the objectivity of science and precision mechanics, the true artists - As is the case, for instance, or Mondrian Pevsner - and built his work, body to body with the expression, exceeded many times, the limits imposed by the theory. But the work of these artists have been interpreted on the basis of theoretical principles, denied that the work itself. We propose a reinterpretation of Neo, constructivism and other movements related, based on their achievements expression rather than to work on the theory. If we want to understand painting by Mondrian's theories, we would have to between the two. Either the prophecy of a total integration of art in everyday life seems to us possible and see the work of Mondrian the first steps in this direction or that the integration seems increasingly remote and his work shows us is frustrated. Either the vertical and horizontal are really the fundamental rhythms of the universe and Mondrian's work is the application of this principle or universal principle is flawed and his work is founded on an illusion. But the truth is that the work of Mondrian, alive and fruitful, of such theoretical contradictions. Anything in Mondrian will see in the destructor of the surface from the plane and line, if you do not pay attention to the new space built this destruction.
The same can be said of Vantongerloo and Pevsner. No matter which mathematical equations are at the root of a sculpture or a picture of Vantongerloo, since only the experience direct perception of the work delivered "meaning" of his rhythms and colors. If Pevsner left or figures of descriptive geometry is a matter of no interest in the face of the new space that his sculptures are born and the expression of cosmic-organic, through him, reveal its forms. Will determine the specific cultural similarities between the art objects and scientific instruments, including the artist's intuition and objective thinking physicist and engineer. But the aesthetic point of view, the work begins to interest precisely so that it transcends these approaches is outside: the universe of meanings existential she reveals a deep and long.
Malevich, for recognizing the primacy of "pure sensibility in art," saved their theoretical definitions of the limitations of rationalism and mechanism, giving his paintings a transcendent dimension which guarantees an outstanding day today. But Malevich paid dearly the courage to oppose both the mechanistic figuration and abstraction, have been considered to this day by some theorists rationalists, a naive Horn had not understood and the true meaning of new plastic. In fact, Malevich has expressed, in painting "Geometric" a dissatisfaction, a desire to transcend the rational and the sensory today manifests itself irrepressible.
The neo-concrete, born of a need to express the complex reality of man modern language within the new structural plastic, denies the validity of the scientistic attitudes and positivist in art and restores expression of the problem, incorporating new dimensions "Verbal" created by the constructive non-figurative art. Rationalism robs art of the autonomy and replaces the unique qualities of the artwork by notions of objectivity science: thus the concepts of form, space, time and structure - that the language arts are linked to an existential meaning, emotional, affective - are confused with the theoretical science that makes them. In fact, on behalf of prejudice today denounces philosophy (M. Merleau-Ponty, E. Cassirer, S. Langer) - and crumble in all fields, starting with the biology modern Pavlovian mechanism that overcomes - the concrete rationalists still see the man machines as a machine between the art and seek to limit the expression of this theoretical reality.
Not conceive of a work of art as "machine" or "object" but as a quasi- corpus, ie, a being whose reality is not exhausted in the foreign relations of its elements, a unless, decomposable into parts for analysis, can only be fully the direct approach, phenomenological. Believe that a work of art surpasses the material on which mechanism rests, not by some unearthly reason: it surpasses it by transcending these mechanical relationships (The aim of Gestalt) and create for itself a tacit meaning (M. Pority) it emerges that the first time. If we had to get a simile for the artwork, we could not find, therefore, neither the machine nor the objectively perceived object, but as S. Lanois and W. Wleidlé in living organisms. This comparison, however, still not enough to express fact-specific, body aesthetic.
Because the artwork is not limited to occupy a place in the objective space - but transcends it found a new meaning - that the objective notions of time, space, form, structure, color, etc. are not sufficient to understand the work of art to realize its "reality." The difficulty of a precise terminology to express a world that does not yield to notions art criticism led to the indiscriminate use of words that betray the complexity of the work created. The influence of technology and science is also present, to the point today, reversing roles, certain artists, overshadowed by this terminology, try to make these art pieces objective notions to apply them as a creative method. Inevitably, the artists who so proceed only illustrate a priori notions, which are limited by a method that has them prescribe in advance the outcome of the work. Thieving is the spontaneous creation, intuitive, reducing the objective body in an objective space, the artist concrete rationalist, with their frames, only you and asks the viewer to stimulate a reaction and reflection: it speaks to the eye as instrument and do not look like a human way of having the world and give him, speaks to the eye- machine and not the eye-body.
Because the work of art transcends the mechanical space that in it the notions of cause and effect lose any validity, and the notions of time, space, form, color are so integrated - by the very fact that no pre-existed, as notions, the work - it would be impossible to speak of them terms as decomposable. Neo-concrete art affirms the absolute integration of these components, believes that the vocabulary "geometric" that it uses can the expression of complex human realities, as proved by many of the works of Mondrian, Malevich, Pevsner, Gabo, Sofia etc. Taueber-Arp. Even though these artists at times confused the concept of so-so with the mechanical-expression, we must clarify that the language of art, the forms said geometric lose the objective character of the geometry to make vehicles for the imagination. Gestalt, is still a causal psychology, is also insufficient to make us understand this phenomenon which dissolves space and shape horn realities causally determinable and give them as long - as the spatial distribution of work. We understand that spatial work of the fact that she is always doing this, is always starting the momentum that generated it and that it was already the origin. And if this description also refers to the experience in first - full - the real, is that the neo-concrete art is not intended nothing less than rekindling the experience. Neo-concrete art founded a new "space" expressive.
This position is equally valid for that denounced neo-concrete poetry, concrete poetry, the same mechanistic objectivism painting. Concrete poets rationalists also put as their ideal the imitation of the machine. Even for them the space and time are no longer between words that foreign-object. Well, if so, the page is reduced to one space word graph and an element of that space. Like painting, the visual is reduced to the optical and the poem does not exceed the size graphics. Neo-concrete poetry rejects such notions spurious and true the nature of language, says the poem as a temporal being. In time and not in space of words becomes a complex nature and significance. The neo-page poetry is the spatial distribution of tense: it is a pause, silence, time. There is, of course, back the concept of time discursive poetry, because while this language flows in succession, neo-language poetry opens in duration. Therefore, unlike the concretism rationalist, who takes the word as a mere object and transforms optical signal, the neo-concrete poetry returns it to its status as "verb", that is, in a humane manner of presentation the real. In neo-language poetry does not run: hard.
In turn, the neo-prose, opening a new field for experiments expressive retrieves the language to flow, surpassing its syntactic contingencies and giving a sense new, broader solutions to certain mistakenly taken so far as poetry. And so, in painting as in poetry, in prose as in sculpture and printmaking, art neo reaffirms the independence of artistic creation in the face of practical knowledge (moral, politics, industry etc.).
The participants of this exhibition I Neoconcrete not constitute a "group". Do not connect dogmatic principles. The apparent affinity of the research conducted in the various fields came and brought them together here. The commitment that binds them, hold them each in first experience, and they will be together for the duration of the deep affinity that approached. Amilcar de Castro Ferreira Gullar Franz Weissmann Lygia Clark Lygia Pape Reynaldo Garden Theon Spanudis
Published in the Sunday Supplement of the Jornal do Brasil newspaper on March 23, 1959